Mechanical Processing of the Timber



The timber goes through a long way before it becomes a useful and appropriate material. In a log building this way is shorter, but for the timber frame carcass house building, it is necessary to have an appropriate and qualitative material, which is processed. Wood is a natural material, where ready-made materials are taken away by using different mechanical processes. What is timber mechanical processing? – It is an interaction of different equipment and timber. By not changing a timber chemical content, changes a form of the timber, its size, and appearance. Timber mechanical processing includes two ways – plasticity and separability (fluctuation), from it depends on sharing of the processing type. Let’s see the most popular timber mechanical processing factors – with and without particleboard, with particleboard as the basic material and mechanical processing, which basis is timber plasticity.


Mechanical timber processing, which is based on timber sharing

Timber sharing processes without a particleboard

Sharing of the timber without shredding or particleboard is a process, which is based on the timber sharing.

  • Peeling – cutting process of the timber, where timber is processed by cutting it with a peeling knife, where the material rotates in the way of the rotation ax. There comes peeled veneer, which is used in a veneer ware.
  • Tattering – the process is similar to the peeling, but the planer knife is in use, so the processed material goes in a straight plane, so the cut is perpendicular to the timber fiber. Get a veneer product, sheet finishes with beautiful texture.
  • Sharing with knives – the process of sharing timber, which is used, when there are thin timber planes, for example, veneer, which is cut in an appropriate size. Special knives or veneer scissors are in use.

Timber sharing processes with a particleboard as a byproduct

This is the widest in use timber mechanical processing type.

  • Sawing – by sharing a raw material with a saw, there appear shavings. The process of the sawing can be varied by using different equipment. The aim of the sawing is to share the timber into separate parts by concrete sizes and other parameters, for example, forms and facial roughness.
  • Milling – very popular sharing process with a particleboard. It is processing of the flat surface by using planer knife.
  • Mechanical processing includes those processes, where there is particleboard, for example, turning, drilling, grinding, digging, forging, etc.

Timber processing, where shavings is a basis material

Timber mechanical processing, where all the timber is shredding to get shavings no such as particleboard, but as a basis material is timber shredding process. Shavings are used for different timber material producing. Processes are very different because different size and forms are necessary. For example, chipping is the sharing of the massive timber into smaller fractions. In the process of the chipping, we get big shavings, which size overtakes 10 cm. After there are produced special shaving planes. The division is chip processing to get smaller, regular size shavings. Those are also used for plate processing, but it has a lot of different kinds of usage. Defibration is timber shredding into a mass, from which after is produced cellulose and paper. For example, milling is a process, as the result becomes timber powder.

Mechanical timber factory processes, which are based on the timber plasticity, are these – – stamping (pressing) – the interaction of two closed contour cutters on the workpiece; pressing bending. Cutting tools Woodworking uses a variety of tools, but they are designed to be as rational as possible so that manual work is minimized.

  • Hand equipment for timber processing;
  • Electric and pneumatic hand equipment; cutting tools for wood working with machines (saws, knives, milling cutters, drills, expansion joints, lathe cutters, cogging and forging tools, abrasive surface grinding tools);
  •  Tools for cutting tools for work;
  •  Measuring instruments and measuring instruments for checking cutting tools;
  • Auxiliary tools and devices for setting cutting tools.

An optimal cutting equipment construction has to must meet these requirements:

  • Ensure high productivity of the cutting process;
  • Guarantee the processing of the parts with the required precision;
  • Ensure the necessary surface roughness of the treated surface in accordance with the requirements of the product
  • A small number of residues that can not be used in the cutting process should be created;
  • Cutting with minimal power consumption;
  • Guaranteeing work safety;
  • The lifetime of the instrument must belong;
  • The preparation of the instrument with the required precision cannot be complicated;
  • The restoration and maintenance of the instrument should be easy to execute;
  • The instrument must not have thermal processing or other defects;
  • The instrument should be set up to be easy and convenient, etc.

The most significant in working with timber processing equipment is to check out an equipment abrasion, when the lodge is huge, preventing the occurrence of accidental wear and avoiding a possibility to make the technical fool, cutting capacity increase, which wastes time and more serious repair is needed. Equipment materials have to be with a high fool durability to different temperatures, corrosion resistance, good machinability, and high quality. The stability and durability of the equipment provide enough roughness of the material, plasticity, and durability. Timber processing cutting equipment processing use carbon steel and alloy steel, high-speed steel, metallic ceramic and mineral crystalline solid alloys, etc. materials. Equipment corpora use qualitative construction carbon steel and alloy steel, also light alloy.

Timber cutting and mechanical processing process has to be connected fully with different influencing factors: influence of wood species and moisture, temperature influence, thickness of chips influence, type and angle of rotation, sharpness and speed of cut. All of these factors influence the process and the result. Wood species and its density predicts timber mechanical strength ratio. If the moisture content of the wood is above the hygroscopic limit (W = 30%), then the free moisture acts as a lubricant and reduces the friction coefficient during the treatment process, or it is easier to work with wet wood. As the temperature rises, the wood resistance decreases, so the higher the temperature, the easier it is to handle the wood. Increasing the thickness of the skin during treatment has a negative effect on the final result, as it can cause irregularities and depressions on the surface. The faster the cutter, the faster and more efficient the processing process. It is therefore essential to keep track of the wear and tear time of the tool and to sharpen it in time.

As a tree trunk is industrialized, see here: